In the most General form, adaptation is understood as the ability of all living things to adapt to environmental conditions. There are genotypic and phenotypic adaptations.

Genotypic adaptation, which is the basis of evolution, is the process of adaptation to the environment of populations (a set of individuals of a single species) through hereditary changes and natural selection. Genotypic adaptation is the basis of the evolutionary doctrine-a set of ideas about the mechanisms and patterns of historical changes in living nature.

Phenotypic adaptation is an adaptive process that develops in an individual during life in response to the effects of various environmental factors, and sometimes (for example, the mobilization of internal resources in diseases) and potentially dangerous changes in the internal environment of the body. This type of adaptation is the subject of numerous studies conducted in recent decades in the theory and methodology of sports, sports physiology and morphology, biochemistry and biomechanics, psychology and medicine.

Adaptation is an adaptive process of achieving the level of activity and capabilities of functional systems, organs and tissues, as well as mechanisms of regulation that are adequate to the requirements of the stimulus.

There are specific and non-specific adaptations. Specific adaptations develop in response to a constant or predictable stimulus. Non-specific adaptation is the tension of psychophysiological functions of the body in response to the action of an unexpected and potentially dangerous factor.

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