The course “the Age peculiarities of man” is one of the important disciplines in the biomedical training of specialists in the field of physical culture and sports. This course gives students the opportunity to learn subjects such as physiology, sports medicine, hygiene, physiotherapy, age physiology, since the study of this course is impossible without deep system knowledge on these subjects, which is the base for exploring age-related characteristics of the human body.
The study of age-related features of the person will allow the coaches to focus on issues of primary screening and early orientation in various sports, the concepts of age, sensitive periods of development, heterochronous nature of development, age determination the beginning of systematic training in various sports.
^ The aim of the course “Developmental characteristics” is to provide future trainers with specific knowledge, skills, skills relating to the vital functions of the human body in different periods of ontogenesis, as well as to teach students to evaluate the effect of the dosed physical activity in people of different ages with the aim of optimizing the training process and prevent the negative effects of overtraining.
^ The main objectives of the course are:
1. The extension of basic biological and methodological training of future specialists in physical culture and sports.
2. The understanding of basic biological processes and reactions in different periods of his life.
3. Learning the correct assessment of age-related changes associated with systematic training.
4. Orientation of future specialists in the training process on sensitive periods for maximum positive effect from training.
5. Ensuring future trainers specific knowledge of physiological, anatomical, morphological and mental characteristics of children of different ages.
6. The study of the peculiarities of the training process for people of Mature and old age.
7. Training assessment of biological age children and adolescents, age norms and rates of development of children and adolescents.
Thus, the knowledge received by students at studying of course “the Age characteristics of man” is extremely important for future specialists of physical culture, sport and AFK, because in the exercise of professional activities they have to deal with mixed-age population, age-appropriate everyone involved becomes a necessity, which determines not only the success of the training process, but often the health of a person.
In this textbook presents a theoretical framework for the development of organ systems in humans, age-related peculiarities of organism adaptation to physical loads. Also reports the estimated thematic plan of practical training and seminars course-learning, basic terminology and concepts that must be learned by students, methodological recommendations for the study of the subject, literature, helping to better understand the patterns of ontogeny and evaluate the impact of physical training and sports on the formation and development of man. In addition, the manual contains reference tables that enable to quantify the changes in different organ systems in the process of individual development.
^ 1. THEORETICAL BASES OF AGE-RELATED CHARACTERISTICS OF A PERSON
I. BASIC laws, terms and concepts. Periods of ontogenesis.
The life cycle of all animals and humans consists of certain stages or periods. Thus, the development of mammals undergoes the following periods: prenatal (including phases of embryonic and placental development), birth, milk, puberty, adulthood and aging. The entire life cycle of an organism from conception to death is called individual development, or ontogeny.
The concept of growth and development. The processes of growth and development are the General biological properties of living matter. Growth and human development, starting from the moment of fertilization, is a continuous ongoing process occurring throughout his life. The development process is abruptly, and the difference between the individual phases, or periods of life, is not only quantitative but also to qualitative changes.
Under development see 3 main processes:
1) Growth – increase in the number of cells in the bones, lungs and other organs) or an increase in the size of cells (muscle and nervous tissue) i.e. quantitative process;
2) Differentiation of organs and tissues.
3) Morphogenesis i.e. qualitative changes.
The main regularities of development of age is periodization and the split i.e. unevenness and time delay of growth and development.
^ Patterns of ontogenetic development. To important patterns of growth and development of children are uneven and the continuity of growth and development, heterochronia and phenomena of advanced maturation vital functional systems.
I. A. Arshavsky formulated the “energy” rule of skeletal muscles” as the main factor that enables us to understand not only the specific features of physiological functions in different age periods, and patterns of individual development. According to his data, especially energy processes at different ages, as well as changing and transforming activity of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems during ontogenesis are dependent on proper development of the skeletal muscles.
A. Markosian to the General laws of individual development carried and the reliability of biological systems. Under the reliability of biological systems is commonly understood as the level of regulation of processes in the body, when provided with an optimal flow with the emergency mobilization of reserve capacity and interchangeability, ensuring the adaptation to the new conditions, and with a quick return to the original state. According to this concept, all the way from conception to natural end takes place in the presence of a stock of vital capabilities. These backup capabilities ensure the development and optimal flow of vital processes in a changing environment.
P. K. Anokhin put forward the theory of heterochrony (uneven maturation of functional systems) and the resulting doctrine of systemgenuine. According to his ideas, under the functional system should understand the wide functional Association of differently localized structures based on the final adaptive effect needed at the moment (for example, functional system act of sucking, functional system, providing the movement of the body in space, etc.).
Functional system ripen unevenly, are included in stages, give way, give the body the device in different periods of ontogenetic development.
Sistemogeneza as the overall pattern of development is most clearly revealed at the stage of embryonic development. However, heterochronic maturation, the gradual incorporation and change of functional systems characteristic of other stages of individual development.
Knowledge of the basic age patterns of development allows to approach two major practical problems.
^ 1. To establish the parameters of the age norm . During this task revealed that the growth and development of children will depend on a number of factors.
^ 2. The definition of the time frame of age periods, or age periodization of ontogenesis. Some scientists believe that child development proceeds continuously, and therefore to speak about any of his phases, or periods, is meaningless. So believes, in particular, the British school of anthropologists, including many prominent scientists, whose works lie at the basis of physiology of development, Tanner, Harrison and others. On the contrary, the Russian scientific school, leading its history from N. P. Gundobin, V. V. V. V. bunak, P. K. Anokhin, considers the question of periods of ontogenesis a key. Perceptions of heterochronous nature of development and irregularity of the ontogenetic process, underlying the different models of periodization of ontogenesis, each of which has its advantages and disadvantages.
For humans the following age periods:
1. Newborn (1 to 10 days).
2. Infancy (from 10 days to 1 year).
3. Childhood: (a) early (1-3 years), b) first (4-7 years), in) second (8-12 years boys, 8-11 years old girls).
4. Adolescence (13-16 years boys girls 12-15 years).
5. Adolescence (17 to 21 year boys, 16 to 20 years girls).
6. Mature age: 1st period (22-35 years male, 21-35 years old female); 2nd period (36-60 years male, 36-55 years women).
7. Old age (61-74 years men, 56-74 years women).
8. Elderly patients (75-90 years).
9. Long-lived (90 years and above).
To the problem of age periodization directly adjoins the task of identifying sensitive and critical periods of development. It is known that some properties of an organism is especially dependent on external influences at certain stages of its formation. Therefore, the identification of such sensitive, i.e. the most sensitive to external influences, periods — a very important task for the physiology of development.